The global financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. A crise financeira em Portugal de 2010–2014 iniciou-se como parte da crise financeira global de 2007–2008, desenvolvendo-se no contexto da crise da dívida pública da Zona Euro, que afetou principalmente os países europeus meridionais e a Irlanda. In the Euro, prices and costs increased in Portugal more than the northern Eurozone economies, but without the ability to devalue, goods become more and more uncompetitive. portugal: efeitos da crise de 2007-2008 60 observatÓrio das migraÇÕes manual de identidade corporativa acm acm. Este é o corolário de uma das mais antigas ideias da teoria económica, a hipótese da convergência. Some senior German policy makers went as far as to say that emergency bailouts to Greece and future EU aid recipients should bring with it harsh penalties. Entenda como a crise de 2008 impactos os países europeus nessa aula. Between 2009-16 the Portugal economic experienced a severe economic crisis – characterised by falling GDP, high unemployment, rising government debt and high bond yields. Dez anos depois, Portugal ainda não recuperou da crise. Os próprios países estão extremamente endividados. In 2016, Portugal registered a 14-year sequence of continuous increases in, In 2016, combined sovereign and personal debt in Portugal was the 5th largest in the Eurozone, reaching a combined 390% of GDP. But the … situação de crise devido ao grande gasto do setor público. It reduced internal consumption partly due to less money in private hands (and I mean, making people VERY poor) and businesses closing. Na fase financeira da crise, no último trimestre de 2008, o governo português aprovou uma “Iniciativa de Reforço da Estabilidade Financeira (IREF)” orientada para o reforço das instituições financeiras. [31], In the end, Portuguese economy grew less on a per capita basis in the 2000s and early 2010s than the American economy during the Great Depression or the Japanese economy during the Lost Decade. Para muitos portugueses, crise econômica já é uma lembrança distante Crise forçou Portugal a pedir ajuda à UE e ao FMI em 2011; em troca de um plano de resgate, a … The new government (of the Socialist Party and independents) took office in November 2015 with a parliamentary majority thanks to the support of the Left Bloc, the Green Party and the Communist Party and the abstention of the Animal Welfare Party (PAN). PORTO, Portugal: Os resultados do primeiro National Oral Health Barometer, um estudo em saúde bucal realizado pela Associação Odontológica Portuguesa, indicam que a crise financeira que atingiu o mundo em 2008 teve um impacto significativo no acesso a cuidados de saúde odontológica em Portugal. [128] After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures to improve the State's financial situation and the country started to be seen as moving on the right track. Meanwhile, the government reported a 2.6% budget deficit in 2008 which rose to almost 10% in 2009. Advantages and disadvantages of monopolies, Fears over liquidity in the Eurozone (no Central Bank willing to print money and buy bonds when needed). Uncommonly, from 2008 to 2012, the average monthly salary has grown more among SME than LC. d’une ampleur inédite depuis la Grande Dépression. Desses balanços podemos retirar que as análises … Portugal, Irlanda, Itália, Grécia e Espanha têm dívidas colossais. [47] However, the Portuguese economy had been creating its own problems over a lengthy period of time, which came to a head with the financial crisis. It has got so bad, the Portuguese Prime Minister has been quoted as saying the young Portuguese, should show more effort and leave the country to get a job. The net acquisition of financial assets was particularly pronounced in Germany, Ireland, Greece, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Portugal and Slovenia, with acquisitions being well above 5% of GDP (see column (A) of Table 2). Mas Portugal está em crise há oito anos. To prevent an insolvency situation in the debt crisis, Portugal applied in April 2011 for bail-out programs and drew a cumulated €78.0 billion from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM), and the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF). over the period 2008-14. [23] In the Stability and Growth Programme for 2005–2009, the government of Sócrates proposed to let the budget deficit to be higher than 6% in 2005, but to structurally reduce it to below 3% until 2008, a plan which was accepted by the European authorities. A crise financeira internacional, desencadeada em 2008, nos Estados Unidos, teve repercussões desastrosas para a economia da zona do euro e atingiu Portugal em cheio. Portugal e Brasil na crise do antigo sistema colonial (1777-1808) by Fernando A. Novais, 1979, Editora HUCITEC edition, in Portuguese Moody noted that the rising debt would weigh heavily on the government's short-term finances.[49]. [43][44][45] In the grounds of avoiding a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout, eventually at a future loss to taxpayers. A crise financeira internacional, desencadeada em 2008, nos Estados Unidos, teve repercussões desastrosas para a economia da zona do euro e atingiu Portugal em cheio. [citation needed], A positive turning point in Portugal's strive to regain access to financial markets, was achieved on 3 October 2012, when the state managed to convert €3.76 billion of bonds with maturity in September 2013 (carrying a 3.10% yield) to new bonds with maturity in October 2015 (carrying a 5.12% yield). [1] The period from 2010 to 2014 was probably the hardest and more challenging part of the entire economic crisis; this period includes the 2011–14 international bailout to Portugal and was marked by an intense austerity policy, intenser than in any other period of the wider 2001–17 crisis. Nova crise de dívida "pode ser inevitável, mas não acreditamos que seja tão má quanto a crise financeira global de 2008-2009", diz economista da Standard & Poor's. [53], In the parliamentary elections of October 2015, the ruling right wing party failed to achieve an operating majority despite having won the elections by a solid margin. [42][38] It is noteworthy that from 2000 to 2007, taxes as share of GDP increased 1.7% in Portugal but declined 0.9% in Eurozone. In response to the debt crisis, Portugal pursued austerity with great vigour Between 2009-11, the budget balance was reduced 7.9% of GDP – a large tightening given the economic situation. In November risk premiums on Portuguese bonds hit euro lifetime highs as investors and creditors worried that the country would fail to rein in its budget deficit and debt. Budget deficit in 2016 was 2.1% of GDP, 0.4% the arbitrary limit set for it by the EC, the lowest since 1974, and less than half of the previous government's last year in power 2015. The 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, also known as the Great Recession in Spain or the Great Spanish Depression, began in 2008 during the world financial crisis of 2007–08. The 2010–2014 Portuguese financial crisis was part of the wider downturn of the Portuguese economy that started in 2001 and possibly ended in 2016–17. [51] All together this bodes well for a further decline of the governmental interest rates in Portugal, which on 30 January 2012 had a peak for the 10-year rate at 17.3% (after the rating agencies had cut the governments credit rating to "non-investment grade" -also referred to as "junk"),[52] and as of 24 November 2012 has been more than halved to only 7.9%. Na verdade, esta tem-se revelado uma das mais graves crises dos últimos anos a ocorrer no sistema financeiro mundial. Crise na periferia: Brasil / América Latina e Portugal / Sul da Europa. [17] Portugal still entered well in the 2000s, registering an almost 4% GDP growth rate in 2000,[10] but growth slowed along 2001; that year's growth rate was 2.0%[10] and the unexpected slowdown was one of the causes that made the government's (still led by António Guterres) budget deficit to slip to 4.1%;[18][19] Portugal thus became the first Eurozone country to clearly break the SGP's 3% limit for the budget deficit, and thus, it was opened an excessive deficit procedure. O estudo mostrou que as questões monetárias foram o principal motivo pelo qual as … Um lugar para discutir apenas artigos relacionados com … [34] In 2010 there was economic growth (1.9%) but the financial status remained very difficult (8.6% budget deficit);[10][35] the country eventually became unable to repay or refinance its government debt and requested a bailout in April 2011; in 2011 the economy fell 1.3% and the government reported a 4.2% budget deficit. From Jan 2010, fears over the stability of Eurozone bonds spread to Portugal, and bond yields rapidly rose to unsustainable levels. In this economic situation, deflationary fiscal policy has had a very high negative multiplier effect causing a substantial drop in real GDP. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar os problemas enfrentados pela Grécia, Portugal e Espanha após à crise financeira de 2008. 10/11/2020. As pessoas chamam-lhe a crise do "subprime". La crise financière de 2008, une crise de la mondialisation ? PDF (922 Kb) Tables. [30] From 2005 to 2007, public debt was stable at a ratio of approximately 68% of the GDP. [10] Meanwhile, the government reported a 2.6% budget deficit in 2008 which rose to almost 10% in 2009. Não há um número mágico que satisfaça toda a gente, mas é possível pelo menos enunciar uma regra geral: em princípio, Portugal devia crescer um pouco mais do que a média europeia. [17] Despite government policies openly aimed to consolidate the Portuguese public finances,[note 1] Portugal was almost always under excessive deficit procedure[note 2] and government debt-to-GDP ratio rose from 50% in 2000 to 68% in 2007 and 126% in 2012. The recent sale of bonds with a 3-year maturity, was the first bond sale of the Portuguese state since requesting the bailout in April 2011, and the first step slowly to open up its governmental bond market again. [29] That year, the economy grew 2.4%, the highest rate in the decade (excluding 2000). 46, 2015, págs. Portugal reduziu déficit fiscal ao mesmo tempo em que aumentava salários e pensões, ... aposentadorias e horas trabalhadas aos níveis anteriores à crise econômica de 2008. Na sequência da iniciativa do PSD de Torres Novas em colaboração com a Comissão Política Distrital do PSD de Santarém, realizada ontem, quinta-feira, 19 de Fevereiro, no Auditório do Hotel dos Cavaleiros, em Torres Novas, aqui fica a apresentação do Deputado Miguel Frasquilho, subordinada ao tema "Da Crise Financeira à Crise Económica: Impactos e Soluções para a … A crise financeira de 2007–09, tamén coñecida crise financeira global, ... Segundo o economista estadounidense Paul Krugman, premio Nobel de economía de 2008, a economía mundial non entrou en depresión en senso propio, pero si tornou a economía da depresión. In 2016, Portuguese GDP was $259 billion, up by about 3% from 2015, and 21% from its record low in 2012. [50], In the first half of 2011, Portugal requested a €78 billion IMF-EU bailout package in a bid to stabilise its public finances. From the perspective of Portugal's industrial orders, exports, entrepreneurial innovation and high-school achievement, the country matched or even surpassed its neighbors in Western Europe. A Crise Do Império Português Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [24][25][26][27] A economia continuou a registrar positivos, porém pequenos, índices de crescimentos em 2005 (0.8%) e 2006 (1.4%). Crise mundial de 2011. Italy and Spain are exhibiting worrying symptoms. The impact of austerity measures also reduced consumer and business confidence. Os reis piblicaram, A Crise Económica de 2008 João Azenhas nº26 Turma Bravo 46º C.F.S. Unfortunately unions and the state are very powerful here, so they hang on to money as the private business disappears. Europe’s approach to the crisis has evolved in three phases (Caldas, 2013): financial (March-December 2008), economic (December 2008 Os semestres considerados como crise foram do segundo semestre de 2008 ao fim do primeiro semestre de 2010, e período de pós-crise foi considerado o segundo semestre de 2010 a maio de 2011. Mas o que é o "subprime"? Este artigo faz parte da série Análises da Economia Portuguesa em tempos de Covid-19, iniciativa do PROSPER - Center of Economics for Prosperity, e representa algumas das conclusões do estudo Quem arcará com os custos da crise Covid-19: Análise de empregos em risco em Portugal. MIGRAÇÃO E CRISE: O RETORNO DOS IMIGRANTES BRASILEIROS EM PORTUGAL Duval Fernandes* Maria da Consolação G. de Castro** Frente à crise iniciada em 2008, a migração de retorno passou a compor, em todo o mundo, a cena dos trajetos migratórios do segundo decênio do Século XXI. On joining the Euro, the Portuguese national debt was below the 60% limit set by the Maastricht criteria. Economia. Portugal foi afetada pela crise de 2008, pese embora a solidez financeira do setor. ‘They should show more effort’ and ‘leave their comfort zone.’ (FT) He suggested that teachers unable to find a job at home should think about emigrating to Angola or Brazil. The current account was temporarily financed by capital inflows, but after the credit crunch these dried up, the ability to finance the current account declined. crise económica de 2008-2012 na dinâmica das empresas portuguesas”. This caused the government to pursue emergency austerity measures. XIV na Europa A depressão do século XIV atingiu primeiro os campos, com os maus anos agrícolas, provocando o abandono progressivo da agricultura. Portugal exited the bailout in May 2014,[4][5] the same year that positive economic growth re-appeared following three years of recession. Excellent presentation of the facts. A um ano das eleições, o Governo já tem uma desculpa: "A crise financeira está a chegar a Portugal." Tese de Mestrado em Gestão e Políticas PúblicasEsta dissertação de Mestrado pretende analisar o papel dos governos da Islândia, da Bélgica e de Portugal na atual crise económico-financeira, procurando auferir se os mesmos foram atores determinantes na gestão dessa crise no período de 2008 a 2011, através do método explicativo comparativo. Crescimento económico e taxa de desemprego em in Portugal: uma história de ciclos acentuados e contraciclidade. r/portugal: Articles related to the country Portugal and Portuguese people in the world. Itália deve 120% de seu PIB. Also in 2010, the country reached a record high unemployment rate of nearly 11%, a figure not seen for over two decades, while the number of public servants remained very high. [12][13][14], From the early 1960s to the early 2000s, Portugal endured three periods of robust economic growth and socio-economic development (approximately from 1960 to 1973, from 1985 to 1992 and from 1995 to 2001)[6] which made the country's GDP per capita to rise from 39% of the Northern-Central European average in 1960[15] to 70% in 2000. É … Jornais Nacionais de 28 de novembro de 2020. Já na fase económica, em Janeiro de 2009, o governo respondia aos apelos das This was a reflection of this decline in competitiveness relative to the rest of the Eurozone. Portugal e a crise do Subprime A crise financeira que neste momento o Mundo atravessa a um nível global iniciou-se nos Estados Unidos com a crise do subprime. [citation needed] This also led to a strong increase of the unemployment rate to over 15 per cent in the second quarter 2012 and it is expected to rise even further in the near future. A crise financeira em Portugal de 2010–2014 iniciou-se como parte da crise financeira global de 2007–2008, desenvolvendo-se no contexto da crise da dívida pública da Zona Euro, que afetou principalmente os países europeus meridionais e a Irlanda. [46], Robert Fishman, in the New York Times article "Portugal's Unnecessary Bailout", points out that Portugal fell victim to successive waves of speculation by pressure from bond traders, rating agencies and speculators. – A visual guide ana estevens anselmo amÍlcar jennifer mcgarrigle jorge malheiros [38][39][40] Vítor Bento also thinks that the belonging to a currency union created numerous challenges to which the Portuguese economy was not able to adapt. O facto da crise económica de 2008-2012, ser a maior desde os anos trinta, com repercussões em diversas áreas, representa um motivo acrescido para a escolha deste tema. Portugal, Itália, Irlanda, Grécia e Espanha, não puderam honrar seus compromissos financeiros criando o grupo do PIIGS (Spain em inglês). [42][38] Meanwhile, the Social Security system was demanding increasing public spending, and the constant tax hikes in the 2000s limited the potential for growth of the Portuguese economy. 01 mai, 2019 - 09:00 • Sandra Afonso, Rui Barros (gráficos) A Renascença olhou para os números da década para perceber como está a economia portuguesa depois da crise, da austeridade da troika e de Mário Centeno, o "Ronaldo das Finanças". Economia Portuguesa e Europeia: a crise de 2008-2013 Manual de apoio António Duarte Santos CARS, Centro de Análise Económica da Regulação Social, Departamento de Ciências Económicas e Empresariais, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa CIEO, Centro de Investigação sobre Espaço e Organizações, Universidade do Algarve [19] Otherwise, the deficit would have hit the 5% mark. Luckily it is mostly the state workers that have these nice pensions, so whichever way they fight for power, they will loose their money. The yield on the country's 10-year government bonds reached 7 percent – a level the Portuguese Finance Minister Fernando Teixeira dos Santos had previously said would require the country to seek financial help from international institutions. In the Euro, prices and costs increased in Portugal more than the northern Eurozone economies, but without the ability to devalue, goods become more and more uncompetitive. Crise em Portugal do séc. By the start of the debt crisis in 2009, the level of public sector debt had edged up to 70% of GDP. Since 2000, productivity-adjusted wages have increased only 5% in Germany (they actually declined from 2000-2008). (See: Fiscal multipliers in Europe). Essas pessoas encontram-se revoltadas e insatisfeitas, pois eles não se sentem responsáveis pela recessão econômica e não estão dispostas a pagarem pelo preço exigido para solucionar os problemas da crise. With much of the young skilled labour force now gone, the government will have to pay for this spiral of debt with pensions. 11/24/2008 A crise lá fora (recortes) A colecção de Mirós do BPN, Banco Português de Negócios (mais 30 toneladas de moedas comemorativas dos Euro 2004) - comprar por doença . A crise de 2008 começou nos anos 90 e tem uma série de características únicas e sem precedentes. Cara Dolores, Na outra semana eu te falava sobre os efeitos da crise econômica europeia em Portugal. Resiliência, sustentabilidade e qualidade de vida em sistemas urbanos : efeitos da crise (pós-2008) em Portugal e no sistema urbano do oeste: Author: Gonçalves, Carlos Jorge de Almeida, 1975-Advisor: [47] In the first quarter of 2010, before pressure from the markets, Portugal had one of the best rates of economic recovery in the EU. Mas Portugal está em crise há oito anos. Desde 2008, quando a crise estourou nos países europeus, milhares de pessoas contrárias às medidas adotadas pelo governo saíram em manifestações na Grécia. Before the bond exchange, the state had a total of €9.6 billion outstanding notes due in 2013, which according to the bailout plan should be renewed by the sale of new bonds on the market. [31], The Great Recession started to hit Portugal in 2008; that year the Portuguese economy did not grow (0.0%) and fell almost 3% in 2009. O problema dos PIIGS começou com a crise de 2008, e até hoje continuam se agravando cada vez mais. This was caused by a combination of the global recession, lack of competitiveness and limitations of being in the Euro. Germany and France, the healthy ones, are suffering from a global economic malaise. Estes países estão enfrentando uma situação economicamente complicada, sendo obrigados a reduzir seus ... in the case of Spain and Portugal, real-estate speculation). In the 2000s and early 2010s, Portugal was under excessive deficit procedure (EDP) in 2002–2004, 2005–2008 and from 2009 on (this last EDP was closed in 2017). Higher taxes also reduced disposable income. [8], Unlike other European countries that were also severely hit by the Great Recession in the late 2000s and received bailouts in the early 2010s (such as Greece and Ireland), in Portugal the 2000s were not marked by economic growth, but instead were already a period of economic crisis, marked by stagnation, two recessions (in 2002–03[9][10] and 2008–09[11][10]) and government-sponsored fiscal austerity in order to reduce the budget deficit to the limits allowed by the European Union's Stability and Growth Pact. [10][36] Meanwhile, government debt-to-GDP ratio sharply rose from 68% in 2007 to 111% in 2011. You are welcome to ask any questions on Economics. In 2008, the Portuguese current account deficit was over 12% of GDP. O ministro das Finanças argumentou que Portugal está “incomparavelmente melhor dotado do ponto de vista económico e financeiro” para enfrentar uma crise do que em 2008, nas finanças públicas e nas empresas e famílias. The rise in unemployment and fall in tax revenues have placed greater strain on the government’s budget, Despite the cost of current austerity, the draft 2013 budget proposes even more austerity measures including  “enormous” tax increases, including the raising of average income-tax rates by as much as a third. Because Portugal was in the Single Currency, there has been little other options to boost domestic demand to offset the fiscal tightening. The financial crisis of 2008, still far from over, has done severe damage to the reputation of the free market. The 2002 snap election brought to power the Social Democrats led by José Manuel Durão Barroso; his government was marked by the introduction of harsh fiscal austerity policies and structural reforms, mainly justified by the need to reduce the budget deficit, a set of policies designed by his Finance Minister Manuela Ferreira Leite. [22] By then, economy was clearly lagging behind European partners and the 2005 budget deficit was expected to be above 6% if no extraordinary measures were used. On 23 March 2011, José Sócrates resigned following passage of a no confidence motion sponsored by all five opposition parties in parliament over spending cuts and tax increases. Esta crise nada tem a ver com a de 2008 ou a de 2010-2012, a resposta só pode ser europeia e os líderes europeus têm de ter em conta que a União Europeia foi construída para assegurar a paz. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Há ainda um agravante. O pico anterior tinha sido registado no terceiro trimestre de 2008. Click the OK button, to accept cookies on this website. [28] In 2007, the government achieved a 2.6% budget deficit (one year before target), below the 3.0% limit allowed by the Stability and Growth Pact. 77-93 Idioma: portugués Enlaces. [20] Meanwhile, the first half of the 2000s also saw the end of the downward trend in the government debt to GDP ratio that marked the 1990s: the ratio rose from 53% in 2000 to 62% in 2004 (the ratio overtook the SGP's arbitrary limit of 60% in 2003). In 2008, the Portuguese current account deficit was over 12% of GDP. [16] Although, by 2000, Portugal was still the poorest country in Western Europe, it nevertheless had achieved a level of convergence with the developed economies in Central and Northern Europe which had no precedents in the previous centuries, a catching-up process which was expected to continue. In the period Q4 2o10 to Q4 2012, the Portuguese economy has declined over 5.3%. Unsurprisingly, the austerity measures are leading to widespread protest and concern the relatively new Portuguese democracy could be threatened by the spectre of mass-unemployment. Autores: Marcelo Braz Moraes dos Reis Localización: Intervenção social, ISSN 0874-1611, Nº. condiÇÕes de vida e inserÇÃo laboral dos imigrantes em portugal: efeitos da crise de 2007-2008 alina esteves (coord.) [42] Another factor at the root of the stagnation may be that Portuguese economy faced increasing competition by Eastern European countries and China, which were economies also specialized in low wages and low-value-added goods. It is also 0.9% below the limits agreed at Maastricht. Excel (1473 Kb) Login for subscription In 2009, the deficit had been 9.4 percent, one of the highest in the Eurozone and well above the European Union's Stability and Growth Pact three percent limit. Abstract. Mas agora o problema é outro! Em Portugal, após a queda do Lehman Brothers, seriam precisos alguns anos para a crise bancária vir ao de cima. Dez anos volvidos, quase todos fazem hoje os seus balanços da grande crise financeira de 2008. In other European nations, meanwhile, wages have increased by between 25% and 35% (. They were pioneers of the Hardcore/punk '80's movement in Portugal, along … Crise Total were formed in 1983 in two Lisbon suburbs (Algueirão and Portela). [32][33] Austerity was somewhat waned in 2008–2010, as part of the European economy recovery plan and the resurgence of Keynesianism (which called for anti-cyclic policies), but was resumed in May 2010. nombreux pays et a conduit à une crise économique mondiale? A crise actual tem três grandes causas, duas conjunturais e uma estrutural. Moreover, euro area governments supported distressed financial institutions via capital transfers. No caso brasileiro, este movimento toma especial After the financial crisis of 2007–2008, it was known in 2008–2009 that two Portuguese banks (Banco Português de Negócios (BPN) and Banco Privado Português (BPP)) had been accumulating losses for years due to bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud. Curioso é que, segundo a reportagem da BBC Brasil, “Portugal chegou a ensaiar um forte pacote de austeridade entre 2011 e 2014”, ou seja, o crescimento retornou durante o período da política de austeridade. Apertem os cintos, que Portugal está sumindo. Economists have variously described the proposed budget as “brutal”, “a crime against the middle class”, a “fiscal atomic bomb”. However, the recession of 2009-12, has seen a rapid increase in the level of debt, despite efforts to reduce public spending and austerity measures pursued by the government. [21], Socialist José Sócrates became Prime Minister in 2005; like his Conservative predecessor, Sócrates tried to reduce the government's budget deficit through austerity and tax hikes, but refused to use extraordinary measures for the consolidation of public finances. A crise financeira de 2008 desencadeou uma série de protestos contra as especulações financeiras ** Nos anos após a crise, alguns protestos contra a especulação imobiliária e financeira americana ficaram conhecidos internacionalmente. segunda-feira, 13 de outubro de 2008. É comum ouvir que o aumento da dívida em 2009, em Portugal, foi, em parte, responsabilidade dos líderes europeus — que teria dado ordem para gastar e, assim, mitigar os efeitos da crise.

Eau De Cologne Alcool, Jet Ski Verberie, Vente Maison Asquins, Météo Beaune Heure Par Heure, Citation Je Suis Qui Je Suis, Ol Féminin Match, Biographie Laurent Lafitte Michel Leeb, Papillon Belgique Identification, Collier Personnalisé Pas Cher,